Bayat of Sultan Bahoo
Research has been made to clarify all hidden aspects about bayat of Sultan Bahoo.
Do you want to know about difference of opinion on bayat of Sultan Bahoo
There is a difference of opinion among the researchers and biographers about bayat of Sultan Bahoo. It is about the outward bayat of Sultan Bahoo on the hand of Sayyid Abdul Rehman Jilani. Now the argument mostly given in this context is that he did not require physical oath (bayat). As he had taken bayat on the sacred hand of Prophet Mohammad (pbuh) spiritually. Then the Holy Prophet entrusted him to Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani for further spiritual training. Moreover, in all his books, he has used the term Shaikh-e-Maa for Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani. It means ‘our spiritual guide’.
Another argument given by them is that he himself has never mentioned anything about his oath of allegiance in any of his books and it is absolutely improbable that he had benefitted from someone but never mentioned him in any of his books. However, this argument is not valid because we have many previous examples where the disciples have not mentioned the name of their spiritual guide in their books. Such as, Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani has not mentioned name of his spiritual guide Shaikh Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi in any of his books. Similarly, Sayyid Habibullah Qadri has not mentioned anything about his spiritual guide in his only book Sirrul Habib.
Which historical book has mentioned about bayat of Sultan Bahoo
Only in Manaqib-e-Sultani, the writer has mentioned bayat of Sultan Bahoo was upon the hand of Sayyid Abdul Rehman Jilani under the spiritual order. Since Manaqib-e-Sultani is his first biography, so it must be true as there is no valid reason to reject it.
Now we shall discuss different opinions of various biographers and researchers in this regard:
What is view of Noor Mohammad Kulachvi about bayat of Sultan Bahoo
The most surprising point of view is that of Noor Mohammad Kulachvi. He was not only a research scholar, but according to him, Haq Bahoo blessed him directly. Surprisingly he claimed to be his spiritual successor and he has also mentioned many of his spiritual meetings with him in his books. Yet never mentioned anything about his own oath of allegiance.
Contradiction of Noor Mohammad Kulachvi
Noor Mohammad Kulachvi’s son Abdul Hameed states about the physical oath of his father in Hayat-e-Sarwari in following words:
At first, he (Noor Mohammad Kulachvi) took oath of allegiance at the hand of Saleh Mohammad. He was the third caretaker of the Sultan Bahoo Darbar. Further his father took him to the shrine when he was very young and requested from shrine caretaker, Saleh Mohammad to take oath of allegiance from Noor Mohammad Kulachvi. Saleh Mohammad took oath of allegiance with great kindness. Many years later, he (Noor Mohammad Kulachvi) left college and stayed at the shrine as a Dervish. At that time, Saleh Mohammad had died and Noor Mohammad was the shrine caretaker. Noor Mohammad usually visited Damaan (Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan). Once he came to the village Mudi Sharif (Dera Ismail Khan). There, Noor Mohammad Kulachvi also went from Kulachi with his father and renewed his oath of allegiance at Noor Mohammad’s hand. (page 56)
Noor Mohammad Kulachvi contradicts his own statement
If Noor Mohammad Kulachvi was getting spiritual beneficence directly from Sultan Bahoo through the Awaisi way, then why did he need to take oath of allegiance, not even once but twice?
Noor Mohammad Kulachvi writes in Makhzan al-Asrar:
There is not any clue about the physical bayat of Sultan Bahoo. (Pg 259-260)
On the contrary, when Noor Mohammad Kulachvi writes the Sarwari Qadri chain on page 8 of his book Anwar-e-Sultani (Punjabi interpretation of Sultan Bahoo poetry), he writes the name of Pir Rehman i.e. Sayyid Abdul Rehman Dehlvi before the name of Sultan Bahoo, thus contradicting his own statement in his other book. Further, Noor Mohammad Kulachvi’s son Abdul Hameed also writes the name of Sayyid Abdul Rehman Dehlvi as ‘Pir Rehman’ while mentioning Sarwari Qadri chain in his book Hayat-e-Sarwari on pages 132-133 and 219. Therefore this shows that he admits that Sayyid Abdul Rehman Jilani was the murshid of Sultan Bahoo. Thus, he also contradicts his father’s opinion.
The travellers of spiritual path know that the spiritual guide recites the spiritual chain while taking oath of allegiance from disciples. This chain includes the names of all the previous spiritual guides in order of their respective era. Every spiritual guide is the disciple of previous one.
View of Sultan Altaf Ali about Bayat of Sultan Bahoo
Doctor Sultan Altaf Ali writes in Divan-e-Bahoothat Haq Bahoo had no need of spiritual guide. Moreover, in the foreword of his book Sharah Abyat-e-Bahoo, he writes that his spiritual guide was Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani whom he had frequently referred to as ‘our spiritual guide’ in his books. However, in his book Mirat-e-Sultani (Bahoo Nama Kamil) Doctor Altaf Ali changes his opinion about his oath of allegiance and writes:
Shaikh Habibullah Qadri said to Sultan ul Arifeen:
“O Fakir! I do not have what you want. Hence, you should go to my spiritual guide Sayyid Abdul Rehman Jilani in Delhi.”
When he reached Delhi, he found that Pir Abdul Rehman Dehlvi was already waiting for him. Immediately he took bayat and bestowed the eternal treasure to him. (page 114)
In the same book, Doctor Sultan Altaf Ali writes the Sarwari Qadri chain on pages 120 and 121. There he writes the name of Sayyid Abdul Rehman Dehlvi before his name. Therefore it proves that the writer admits his oath of allegiance his hands.
VIEW OF PROFESSOR AHMAD SAEED HAMDANI
In this context, the most rigid opinion is that of Professor Ahmad Saeed Hamdani. He has discussed this matter in detail in his book Sultan-ul-Arifeen Hazrat Sultan Bahoo (Hayat-o-Taleemat)under the topic Shaikh-e-Maa Sultan-ul-Arifeen ke Murshid (page 46-50).
EXTRACT FROM BOOK MANAQIB-E-SULTANI
Professor Ahmad Saeed Hamdani gives reference of the following statement from Manaqib-e-Sultani:
Shah Habibullah Qadri was a famous Shaikh who lived in Garh Baghdad at the bank of river Ravi. He took different tests of Sultan Bahoo but found him better in courage and spiritual strength. Therefore did not take bayat of Sultan Bahoo. Instead, he requested him to go to his spiritual guide.
Then he writes:
According to the writer of Manaqib-e-Sultani,a Dervish Sultan Hameed accompanied Sultan ul Arifeen in his journey to Delhi. He belonged to Bhakar and was his junior spiritual successor. When Sultan ul Arifeen met Sayyid Abdul Rehman Jilani, he took him in privacy. He received his ‘eternal destiny’ only in one step. Thus, he obtained what he desired.
ARGUMENT # 1
Contradicting this statement of Manaqib-e-Sultani, Ahmad Saeed Hamdani proceeds:
Explicitly the writer of Manaqib-e-Sultani considers Sayyid Abdul Rehman Jilani the spiritual guide of Sultan ul Arifeen. Also he has given a spiritual chain in accordance. However, before writing the aforementioned incident, he has also stated his esoteric experience. Now that experience shows that he received spiritual beneficence in Awaisi Moreover, the Holy Prophet took bayat of Sultan Bahoo on his sacred hand and permitted him to guide people. Further, Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani trained him esoterically. Hence he was ordered to guide and persuade men of Allah on the way to righteousness.
The writer of Manaqib-e-Sultani Sultan Hamid had heard the tradition of this esoteric experience from his ancestors, generation after generation. He had this experience while he was awake.
“One day he was standing somewhere in Shorkot, a celestial and dignified rider appeared who held his hand and let him sit on the horse behind him….That rider was Ali ibn Abi Talib. (The topic ‘Search for the Divine Truth and Oath of allegiance’ mentions it). After presence in the Mohammadan Assembly and being satiated with the benevolence of the Companions of Holy Prophet and the People of Cloak (Ahl-e-Bayt), he was assigned to Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani, for further guidance.”
ARGUMENT # 2
Another key point is that in Risala Roohi Sharif, when he mentions the names of the seven Sultan-ul-Faqr souls, he writes about Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani:
Meaning: One of these souls is our spiritual guide. He is the truth of Truth, absolute celestial light, the perfect manifestation of Eternal Reality and the beloved of Allah, Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani.
Now we compare this revelation to the tradition of meeting with Sayyid Abdul Rehman Jilani. There is clear contradiction between the two. If, after this great triumph the Divine lights of Essence were directly bestowed upon him and he was given the authority by the glorious souls to guide people towards righteousness, then getting ‘eternal destiny’ from any other spiritual guide makes no sense. Therefore he had already reached the status where he himself held the position of the perfect spiritual guide.
ARGUMENT # 3
Professor Ahmad Saeed Hamdani proceeds as:
The author of Manaqib-e-Sultaniwrites that Haq Bahoo was a Saint by birth. Therefore he had complete knowledge of the Divine secrets. Moreover, he himself says:
“Due to the excess of revelations and effects of theophanies of light of the Divine Essence, I could not acquire exoteric education neither could I get time to practise excessive outward devotions. Hence I forever remain engrossed in the Divine Oneness and busy in exploring the Divine Essence.”
If he did not need exoteric education neither got time for outward devotions, then, he did not require an outward spiritual guide as well. Now it seems that just like in the age of cultural deterioration, modern members of different fields and circles followed and unnecessarily emphasized upon the superficial rules only, similarly, in mysticism, people superfluously enhanced the importance of physical form of connectivity. If someone did not have a teacher in poetry, he was considered untaught. Likewise, in mysticism, someone who is not linked to a living spiritual guide, is considered misguided.
As far as Haq Bahoo is concerned, he did not care about this rule at all. Therefore he has not mentioned anything about Habibullah Shah or his Murshid Jilani in any of his books. However, he often relates about getting beneficence through the Awaisi way and his aforementioned spiritual experience. Perhaps his descendants found it necessary to attach him to some traditional spiritual chain. As cultural background of their age requires it. Hence, they had to give reference to a living spiritual guide.
VIEW OF MUMTAZ BALOCH
Mumtaz Baloch writes in Hoo Dey Bayt:
Bayat of Sultan Bahoo on the hand of Sayyid Abdul Rehman Dehlvi is merely a presumption which has no connection with reality. (page 61)
Mumtaz Baloch is a research scholar, therefore his books are limited to superficial knowledge only. Therefore he has written the above statement just on the basis of those statements of Sultan Altaf Ali, Professor Ahmad Saeed Hamdani and Noor Mohammad Kulachvi. As in those statements they appear to be against exoteric bayat of Sultan Bahoo.
View of Maulwi Mohammad din Gujrati about bayat of Sultan Bahoo
Maulvi Mohammad Din Gujrati published a booklet on Haq Bahoo in 1927. Even after searching hard, it was not located but its particular statement which we needed is in Professor Ahmad Saeed Hamdani’s book on page 49. This statement supports our argument about bayat of Sultan Bahoo which we will discuss later. Here we are quoting the exact statement:
Maulvi Mohammad Din Gujrati’s view is that as far as bayat of Sultan Bahoo is concerned he met Abdul Rehman Jilani once for taking oath of allegiance only. As he narrates:
“Abdul Rehman Jilani held his hand, took him in his bedsit and said to him, ‘Indeed! You are rich with the benevolence of Divine Oneness. Further, the Holy Prophet’s sacred hand is upon your hand and you are guided by Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani’. He then took bayat of Sultan Bahoo and bestowed him with his eternal destiny. After this oath he came to the market of Delhi. There he blessed the people with his attention. Thus, all the shopkeepers and other people felt the state of spiritual absorption.”
VIEW OF SULTAN-UL-FAQR VI SULTAN MOHAMMAD ASGHAR ALI
Sultan-ul-Faqr VI Sultan Mohammad Asghar Ali belonged to the family of Sultan ul Arifeen. He was the man of Divine Essence (Sahib-e-Musamma Murshid ). Also the possessor of the Divine Trust and stationed at the venerable grand status of Sultan-ul-Faqr.
SULTAN MOHAMMAD ASGHAR ALI’S STATEMENT & BAYAT OF SULTAN BAHOO
He used to say:
“Physical bayat of Sultan Bahoo on the hand of Sayyid Abdul Rehman Jilani was amongst the requirements of Faqr. So, he met him only once, took oath of allegiance and returned because in Faqr outward oath of allegiance is essential. If he had not taken oath of allegiance at his hand, then the Sarwari Qadri chain which reaches Sayyid Abdul Rehman Jilani from Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani in a continuous manner would have broken and he would not have become a linked spiritual guide of this chain.”
He further said:
“Pir Sayyid Mohammad Bahadur Ali Shah received spiritual beneficence and the treasure of Faqr during his forty years’ stay at the shrine of Sultan Bahoo. On accomplishment of all the branches of esoteric knowledge, he was spiritually ordered by Sultan ul Arifeen to pledge oath of allegiance to Pir Mohammad Abdul Ghafoor Shah.”
Further he used to say that his spiritual guide Sultan Mohammad Abdul Aziz wanted to go to Baghdad. As he wished to take oath of allegiance at the hand of the progeny of Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani. Pir Bahadur Ali Shah requested Sultan Bahoo to take Sultan Mohammad Abdul Aziz’s oath spiritually. As he belonged to his progeny. Yet he ordered Sultan Mohammad Abdul Aziz to take physical oath at the hand of Pir Bahadur Ali Shah. In Faqr, it is necessary to pledge oath of allegiance to a living spiritual guide.
The spiritual guide recites the chain of Sarwari Qadri order
Sultan Mohammad Asghar Ali would recite the names of all the Sarwari Qadri spiritual leaders (in order of their appearance in the world) during taking oath of allegiance from the disciples. Hence, like all spiritual orders, it starts from the Holy Prophet. Further it reaches Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani. Then to Sayyid Abdul Rehman Jilani in a continuous way. Then continues till his spiritual guide Sultan Mohammad Abdul Aziz. In that Silsila also, Sayyid Abdul Rehman Jilani’s name comes before his name. Sultan-ul-Ashiqeen Sultan Mohammad Najib-ur-Rehman also recites the same names. Further with an addition of two verses which are about his beloved spiritual guide.
Sultan Bahoo Bayat – Books published in India
The murshid of Sultan Bahoo is Sayyid Abdul Rehman Jilani according to many books published in India. For example Aasaar-e-Dehli, Rehnuma-e-Mazaraat-e-Dehli, Tareekh Mashaikh-e-Qadiriyya, Mazaraat Auliya-e-Dehli and in many other books.
All the research scholars who are against outward bayat of Sultan Bahoo have their own view points based upon their knowledge and the books available. This research is not for contradiction. Rather, it is to proceed their work. Although it is important to state humbly that a research scholar just tries to find the truth and it is possible that his research proves to be wrong.
Further he himself states;
1. Sarwari Qadriis actually the one who takes oath of allegiance on the hand of Prophet Mohammad. Resultantly he attains purification from all the immoral behaviours. Further he gains the Divine favour to adopt the way of sharia. (Mehak-ul-Faqr Kalan)
2. Some of the Sarwari Qadripossess such an elite status that the Holy Prophet directly blesses them with his benevolence. Then, he assigns them to Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani. Who blesses them and never separates from himself even for a single moment. (Mehak-ul-Faqr Kalan)
THREE KINDS OF AWAISI WAY
Those who have rejected the physical bayat of Sultan Bahoo have given the argument that he received beneficence in the Awaisi way. Awaisi way is the spiritual way in which a devotee gets spiritual beneficence directly from the Holy Prophet or from a distinguished Saint who is not physically alive. However this spiritual way surely exists. Hence we do not deny it. There are three kinds of the Awaisi way:
THE FIRST TYPE OF AWAISI WAY
First is the Awaisi way in which the benefiter does not have to hold the throne of guidance and persuasion. Yet is destined to perform some important responsibility related to the religion or umma. For example, Allama Iqbal received spiritual beneficence from the soul of Jalaluddin Mohammad Rumi through the Awaisi way. Although, Allama Iqbal had taken oath of allegiance in the Qadri order when he was young. Still he never mentioned the name of his outward spiritual guide in his poetry. Rather, he considers Rumi his actual spiritual guide.
THE SECOND TYPE OF AWAISI WAY
Second Awaisi way is that, whereby a seeker is given the preliminary spiritual guidance at the beginning of his journey towards Allah. Then he is sent to a living spiritual guide for further guidance. A seeker may or may not know it.
THE THIRD TYPE OF AWAISI WAY
The great people who are destined to adorn the throne of Divine guidance and persuasion must take physical oath of allegiance. This is despite the fact that they have benefitted from the Holy Prophet through the Awaisi way. As they should have esoteric as well as exoteric link with the chain of spiritual guides of a specific spiritual order.
Outward oath of Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani
Now the fact that Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani, despite being a Saint by birth, took oath of allegiance at the hand of Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi supports our argument. Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani’s grand status among all Saints is so high that his foot is at the neck of all of them. As he took oath of allegiance upon the hands of the Holy Prophet on the night of Miraj (as mentioned in Ain-ul-Faqr). Without his benevolence no one can find even smell the fragrance of Faqr. Also he found the complete spiritual treasure through the Awaisi way. Shah Waliullah Muhadas Dehlvi explains in his book Hamma’at;
After Ali ibn Abi Talib, a series of sacred Sufis and Saints began. The most powerful and superior among all the Saints and the one who travelled the mystic path with utmost excellence through the actual Awaisiway is Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani.
Bayat of Sultan Bahoo and Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani
This proves that Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani found everything through the Awaisi way. Now Sultan Bahoo considers him his spiritual guide and calls him ‘our spiritual guide’. Although, Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani received entire spiritual beneficence and powers through the Awaisi way, even then he had to take oath of allegiance upon the hands of Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi. His oath of allegiance has never been controversial and many books of mysticism with confirmed and authentic traditions state that fact.
According to a tradition Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani met his spiritual guide Shaikh Abu Saeed Mubarak Makhzoomi only once, he gave him morsels with his hand to eat and the cloak (once a symbol of oath of allegiance). That was all. Then Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani immediately started persuading and guiding the seekers on the path to Allah. Moreover bayat of Sultan Bahoo followed the same pattern. He met his spiritual guide only once and found the complete spiritual treasure in just one meeting. As he had already completed his spiritual journey through the Awaisi way. The statement of Maulvi Mohammad Din Gujrati referred before, supports our argument.
Why a spiritual chain is necessary?
Now the question is why it is necessary to pledge physical oath of allegiance in order to hold the throne of Divine guidance and persuasion? It is because in Faqr a system of spiritual chain establishes which reaches step by step to the Holy Prophet. Every perfect spiritual guide should be a link of this chain. Further this chain and linkage should not break anywhere, until it reaches the Holy Prophet through Ali ibn Abi Talib.
If this linkage is broken anywhere in between, a great disorder and trouble can arise. As it would become very easy for any wicked person to creep in this spiritual chain and claim the throne of Divine guidance and persuasion saying that the Holy Prophet directly blessed him through the Awaisi way and that he does not need to pledge oath of allegiance to any spiritual guide. If someone claims this, he is an absolute liar. Such evil persons falsely claim sainthood, just as people falsely claim Prophethood or claim to be the Imam Mehdi. The law should punish them. Nowadays, such spiritual guides who are frauds and fake are everywhere. They refuse physical oath of allegiance and claim that they are directly blessed or are a Saint by birth or a hereditary Saint.
Why physical bayat of Sultan Bahoo was required
The physical oath of allegiance of Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani and bayat of Sultan Bahoo was to fulfil the aforementioned requirement. As they were to hold the throne of Divine guidance and persuasion. They benefitted lacs of people of their age. Furthermore their spiritual order has to continue till the doomsday. Their physical oath of allegiance was necessary also. As it had to serve as an example so that in future no one could claim that he is permitted to hold the throne of guidance and persuasion by the Holy Prophet through the Awaisi way.
As a matter of fact Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani said:
The chain of Faqrof the great spiritual guides reaches Ali ibn Abi Talib in a continuous manner. Then from Ali, who is the doorway to knowledge, reaches Prophet Mohammad who is the core of knowledge. These spiritual leaders invite people towards Allah with wisdom. (Sirr al-Asrar Chp:5)
Also this statement supports our argument that to hold the throne of Divine guidance and persuasion, it is necessary that the Saint has a link with the spiritual chain.
What happens when a spiritual guide passes away without entrusting someone with his spiritual powers?
Although, sometimes it also happens that the spiritual leader of the order cannot find any seeker who is capable enough to entrust all the spiritual powers to run the Sufi order. So he has to leave the world without transferring his powers to anyone. After his death, when Allah sends some competent enough, then he transfers his powers to him from his shrine. Then the chain continues again from where it has stopped. In this manner, there remains no gap between the links of the chain. For instance we can find two such examples in the history of mysticism and spirituality.
First is the Naqshbandi order and the other is in the Sarwari Qadri order. The example in Naqshbandi order is of Abu al-Hasan al-Kharaqani who was born eighty seven years after the death of his spiritual guide Bayazid Bustami. When he reached mature age, he did hard mystic struggles at the shrine of Bayazid Bastami for twenty years. Then, Bayazid transferred him his spiritual powers to continue his order.
Sarwari qadri order
The example in Sarwari Qadri order is of Sultan Bahoo who died in 1102 H without transferring the Divine Trust to anyone. Now eighty four years after his death, Sayyid Abdullah Shah Madni Jilani was born in Madina. He remained secluded for twelve years at the tomb of Prophet Mohammad. Then, after getting spiritual training from Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani, he reached the shrine of Sultan Bahoo in 1241 H. Then he transferred him the Divine Trust of Faqr. Hence the Sarwari Qadri chain continued again from where it had stopped.
Tehreek Dawat-e-Faqr hopes that this research by Sultan-ul-Ashiqeen Sultan Mohammad Najib-ur-Rehman would clarify many misconceptions about the physical bayat of Sultan Bahoo. Intention was not to hurt sentiments of any person or group rather to bring in light different aspects of biography of a great Saint.